The chief mate is usually in charge of cargo, stability and the deck crew, the second mate in charge of navigation plans and updates and the third mate as the safety officer.
On many ships, Assistant Engineers stand periodic watches, overseeing the safe operation of engines and other machinery.
However, most modern ships sailing today utilize Unmanned Machinery Space (UMS) automation technology, and Assistant Engineers are Dayworkers.
As of 2011, a typical deep-sea merchant ship has a captain, three mates, a chief engineer and three assistant engineers, plus six or more unlicensed seamen, such as able seamen, oilers, QMEDs, and cooks or food handlers.
Spanish colonies began to form as early as 1565 in places like St.
Merchant Marine officers may also be commissioned as military officers by the Department of Defense.
This is commonly achieved by commissioning unlimited tonnage Merchant Marine officers as Strategic Sealift Officers in the Naval Reserves. 95–202, approved November 23, 1977, granted veteran status to Women Airforce Service Pilots and "any person in any other similarly situated group" with jurisdiction for determination given to the Secretary of Defense who delegated that determination to the Secretary of the Air Force.
Ship's engineers operate, maintain, and repair engines, boilers, generators, pumps, and other machinery.
Merchant marine vessels usually have four engineering officers: a chief engineer and a first, second, and third assistant engineer.
They also steer the ship, measure water depth in shallow water, and maintain and operate deck equipment such as lifeboats, anchors, and cargo-handling gear.